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Replacement Local Development Plan


Summary (optional)
The Local Development Plan (LDP) provides the legal framework for the development and use of land within the County Borough (excluding that part covered by the Snowdonia National Park Authority). It also provides the context for determining local planning applications. As the local planning authority, we are responsible for preparing and updating the Local Development Plan.
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LDP5 - Biodiversity in Planning Focussed Changes Document

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Biodiversity

No Comments LDP5 - 001

1.1 Section/Heading: 1.1

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The main purpose of this SPG is to be of assistance to members of the public, applicants and developers, planning officers and Council Members dealing with planning applications which may impact on biodiversity.

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The main purpose of this SPG is to be of assistance to everyone involved in dealing with new development in Conwy and assessing what impact it may have on biodiversity.

Justification: Minor editorial change

No Comments LDP5 - 002

1.2 Section/Heading: 1.3

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Well-designed development can help home-owners meet their changing needs, add value to properties and provide vibrant retail, office or tourism opportunities enhancing the local area. With good design it is also possible to reduce energy bills and avoid wasting natural resources. Most development can also provide habitat for a variety of species and improve the biodiversity of the site and surrounding area

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Well-designed development can help home-owners meet their changing needs, add value to properties and provide vibrant retail, office or tourism opportunities enhancing the local area. With good design it is also possible to reduce energy bills and avoid wasting natural resources. Most development can also provide and enhance habitats for various species and improve the biodiversity of the site and surrounding area

Justification: Minor editorial change

No Comments LDP5 - 003

1.3 Section/Heading: 1.4

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The Council will have regard to this SPG when making planning decisions with immediate effect. The Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) advises that SPGs may be used as a means of setting out more detailed guidance on the application of LDP policies. Although this guidance supplements existing policies, it also reflects the updated national policy context, and this will be reflected in the LDP through annual monitoring.

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The Council will have regard to this SPG when making planning decisions with immediate effect. The Welsh Government (WG) advises that SPGs may be used as a means of setting out more detailed guidance on the application of LDP policies. Although this guidance supplements existing policies, it also reflects the updated national policy context, and this will be reflected in the LDP through annual monitoring.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.4 Section/Heading: 2.1

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Biodiversity is the richness and diversity of habitats and species. Some habitats and species are recognised as being of international or national importance while others may be of local significance. All contribute to, and help to define, the natural character of a given area. Wildlife of our rural and coastal open spaces constitutes a significant part of people's contact with the natural environment in Conwy and fortunately many of these places are easily accessible, adding to the quality of life. Biodiversity is an integral part of a healthy and functional natural environment.

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Biodiversity is the richness and diversity of habitats and species. Some habitats and species are recognised as being of international or national importance while others may be of local significance. All contribute to, and help to define, the natural character of a given area. Wildlife of our rural and coastal open spaces constitutes a significant part of people's contact with the natural environment in Conwy and fortunately many of these places are easily accessible, adding to the quality of life and attractiveness of the area. Biodiversity is an integral part of a healthy and functional natural environment. It is essential for sustaining the natural living systems, or ecosystems, that provide us with food, fuel, health, wealth, and other vital services. It is vital for our wellbeing.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.5 Section/Heading: 2.2

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Biodiversity is essential for sustaining the natural living systems, or ecosystems, that provide us with food, fuel, health, wealth, and other vital services. It is vital for our wellbeing.

Justification: Minor editorial change. Incorporated into 2.1

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1.6 Section/Heading: 3.1

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Conwy has a wealth of wildlife and a diversity of habitats. The beautiful headland of the Great Orme, with its sea cliffs, limestone pavements, and Marine Drive provides views across Traeth Lafan to Snowdonia and Anglesey to the west, and the North Wales and Lancashire coasts to the East. In stark contrast are the windswept uplands of the Hiraethog moors that form a niche between the vast coniferous forest of Clocaenog, the hills forming the Migneint and the course of the River Conwy. The Hiraethog provides habitat for breeding Hen Harrier, Merlin and Black Grouse whilst the Red Kite is slowly gaining a stronghold in the South of the County.

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Conwy has a wealth of wildlife and a diversity of habitats. In the north is the beautiful headland of the Great Orme, with its sea cliffs, limestone pavements and grassland. It is accessed from Marine Drive which provides views across Traeth Lafan to Snowdonia, Puffin Island and Anglesey to the west, and the North Wales and Lancashire coasts to the East. In stark contrast are the windswept uplands of the Hiraethog moors forming a niche between the vast coniferous forest of Clocaenog, the hills forming the Migneint and the course of the River Conwy. The Hiraethog provides habitat for breeding Hen Harrier, Merlin and Black Grouse whilst the Red Kite is slowly gaining a stronghold in the South of the County.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.7 Section/Heading: 3.2

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Our rural hinterland forms the core of Conwy and provides a patchwork of woodlands, grazed uplands, valleys and hedgerows. Oak woodland offers habitat for summer visitors such as the Redstart, Pied Flycatcher and Wood Warbler whilst Tawny Owls and woodpeckers are here all year round. The wide Conwy valley links Snowdonia's northern Carneddau range and Gwydir Forest in the west to Coed Hafod and the rolling hills to the east which continue into Denbighshire and its agriculturally diverse Clwyd valley. Further east, there are the hills forming the Clwydian Range and the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB).

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Our rural hinterland forms the core of Conwy and provides a patchwork of woodlands, grazed uplands, valleys and hedgerows. Oak woodland offers habitat for summer visitors such as the redstart, pied flycatcher and wood warbler whilst tawny owls and woodpeckers are here all year round. The wide Conwy valley links Snowdonia's northern Carneddau range and Gwydir Forest in the west to Coed Hafod and the rolling hills to the east which continue into Denbighshire and its agriculturally diverse Clwyd valley and further east, the Clwydian Range, Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB).

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.8 Section/Heading: 3.3

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Our marine life is a rich variety of animals, including soft corals, sea anemones, fish, crabs, and breeding sea birds. Conwy's coastal sea cliffs provide habitats for the Chough, the rarest species of crow breeding in Britain. Kinmel Bay holds important areas for the water vole and common lizard. Conwy also has nine species of bat, including the critically endangered lesser horseshoe bat, which has disappeared from most of its northern range in Europe. The Conwy Valley, in particular, holds strong populations of this species.

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Our marine life is a rich variety of animals, including soft corals, sea anemones, fish, crabs, and breeding sea birds. Conwy's coastal sea cliffs provide habitats for the red-billed chough, the rarest species of crow breeding in Britain. Kinmel Bay hold important areas for water vole and common lizard. Conwy also has nine species of bat, including the critically endangered lesser horseshoe bat, which has disappeared from most of its northern range in Europe. The Conwy Valley, in particular, holds strong populations of this species therefore the reuse of derelict buildings needs careful assessment.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.9 Section/Heading: 4.2

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The LDP has a crucial role in safeguarding the important habitats and species identified in this guidance. This SPG is an important link showing how it is implemented, in part, through the planning system.

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The LDP has a crucial role in safeguarding the important habitats and species identified in this guidance. This SPG is an important link showing how it is implemented, through the planning system.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.10 Section/Heading: 4.3

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Loss of biodiversity runs contrary to the aims and objectives of the LDP in terms of achieving sustainable development. Therefore it is important that new development, re-development and changes in land use, wherever possible, should avoid loss or harm to wildlife features present on a site. However, in exceptional cases, where there are over-riding material planning considerations that mean avoidance is not possible, then the Council will seek measures from developers that minimise any adverse effects and offset or compensate for those impacts that cannot be avoided or reduced, prior to the commencement of development.

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Loss of biodiversity runs contrary to the aims and objectives of the LDP in terms of achieving sustainable development. Therefore it is important that new development, re-development and changes in land use, wherever possible, avoid loss or harm to wildlife features present on a site wherever possible. However, in exceptional cases, where there are over-riding material planning considerations that mean avoidance is not possible, then the Council will seek measures from developers that minimise any adverse effects and offset or compensate for those impacts that cannot be avoided or reduced, prior to the commencement of development.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.11 Section/Heading: 4.4

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Much of the pressure on biodiversity is related to development and land use. Consequently, the planning system has a vital role to play in biodiversity conservation. Conwy County Borough Council has an Ecologist and a Planning Enquires Officer who can advise on biodiversity issues relating to planning applications. Policy NTE/4 is shown in full on page 8 and forms part of the Natural Environment chapter of the LDP. This outlines the requirements of new development in relation to Biodiversity.

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Much of the pressure on biodiversity is related to development and land use. Consequently, the planning system has a vital role to play in biodiversity conservation. The Council has an ecologist and a planning enquires officer who can advise on biodiversity issues relating to planning applications.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.12 Section/Heading: 5.2

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In particular applicants should:
Avoid adverse impacts on designated sites (see Appendix 2) and protected species (see Appendices 2 and 3).
Avoid adverse impacts to priority habitats and species identified in the Section 42 list of habitats or species of principle importance to Wales and the Conwy LBAP.
Retain existing habitats and provision for species in the site layout and design.
Where appropriate provide a landscaping scheme taking into account the above prior to the granting of planning permission.
Avoid leaving existing habitats and species isolated within the finished development by linking them to adjacent habitats via appropriate wildlife corridors as identified in earlier survey work.

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In particular applicants should:
Avoid adverse impacts on designated sites (see CCW website) and protected species (including those listed in Appendix 3).
Avoid adverse impacts to priority habitats and species identified in the Section 42 list of habitats or species of principle importance to Wales and the Conwy LBAP.
Retain existing habitats and consider species in the site layout and design integrating the process into the DAS/Biodiversity Statement.
Where appropriate prepare a landscaping scheme at pre-app stage taking into account the above prior to submitting an application.
Avoid leaving existing habitats and species isolated within the finished development by linking them to adjacent habitats via appropriate wildlife corridors as identified in earlier survey work.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.13 Section/Heading: 5.3

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Ideally the design stage should follow on from the survey information gathered during Pre-Application Stage, if appropriate. The aim should be to provide sufficient measures in the design for the biodiversity identified on site to be retained or enhanced, linking with adjacent wildlife features wherever possible. These can be detailed and justified in the Biodiversity Statement (see Section 6).

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Ideally the design stage should follow on from the survey information gathered during Pre-Application Stage, if appropriate. The aim should be to provide sufficient measures in the design for the biodiversity identified on site to be retained or enhanced, linking with adjacent wildlife features wherever possible. These can be detailed and justified in the Biodiversity Statement.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.14 Section/Heading: 5.5 Mitigation to Minimise Unavoidable Harm

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Where adverse effects are unavoidable they can be minimised by appropriate mitigation measures that can be included in conditions or planning obligations / agreements. In particular applicants should ensure that:

  • Works are carried out at the appropriate time of year to avoid disturbance to species, (see Appendix 6);
  • Any necessary licences are obtained early in the process, so that protected species are treated appropriately. CCW provides guidance on protected species, (see Section 7, page 18).
  • However, note that a licence to disturb a European protected species can only be applied for after planning permission has been granted;
  • All other measures have been taken to reduce effects on biodiversity to a minimum, for example by creating buffer zones between sensitive areas and development areas to reduce disturbance to habitats;
  • New infrastructure (for example bridges) are designed to enable continued movement of wildlife;
  • The hydrological status of sensitive sites is maintained through the careful design of drainage infrastructure;
  • Habitats which cannot be retained in their current location are translocated whenever feasible. Hedgerows and trees for example, can be successfully translocated if sufficient care is taken;
  • Species from destroyed habitats are translocated to suitable receptor sites (to be used only as a rescue operation to save species that would otherwise be lost).

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Where adverse effects are unavoidable they can be minimised by appropriate mitigation measures that can be included in conditions or planning obligations / agreements. In particular applicants will be required to ensure that:

  • Works are carried out at the appropriate time of year to avoid disturbance to species, see Appendix 6;
  • Any necessary licences are obtained, so that protected species are treated appropriately. CCW provides guidance on protected species, see Section 7, page 18.
  • However, note that a licence to disturb a European protected species can only be applied for after planning permission has been granted;
  • All other measures have been taken to reduce effects on biodiversity to a minimum, for example by creating buffer zones between sensitive areas and development areas to reduce disturbance to habitats;
  • New infrastructure (for example bridges) are designed to enable continued movement of wildlife;
  • The hydrological status of sensitive sites is maintained through the careful design of drainage infrastructure;
  • Habitats which cannot be retained in their current location are translocated whenever feasible. Hedgerows for example, can be successfully translocated if sufficient care is taken;
  • Species from destroyed habitats are translocated to suitable receptor sites (to be used only as a rescue operation to save species that would otherwise be lost).

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.15 Section/Heading: 5.6 Compensation to Offset Residual Harm

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Where, despite all possible mitigation, there will be residual adverse effects on wildlife, they can be compensated for by measures that are designed to offset the harm. Developers should, where necessary, alter the site design to accommodate compensatory features at an early stage in the planning process.

Whilst compensation is always a last resort, the Planning Authority will seek to:

  • Ensure that habitats are enhanced, restored or recreated on site, adjacent to, or in close proximity to the site.
  • Ensure that compensatory measures are guaranteed by conditions or planning obligations / agreements.

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Where, despite all possible mitigation, there will be residual adverse effects on wildlife, they can be compensated for by measures that are designed to offset the harm. Developers should, where necessary, alter the site design to accommodate compensatory features at an early stage in the planning process.

Whilst compensation is always a last resort, the Planning Authority will seek to:

  • Ensure that habitats are enhanced, restored or recreated on the site or on other areas of land (such as an offsetting scheme).
  • Ensure that compensatory measures are guaranteed by conditions or planning obligations / agreements.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.16 Section/Heading: 5.9

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Examples of design measures that might achieve new benefits which developers should consider include:

  • Creating areas of new habitat such as woodland, rough grassland, wildflower grassland, green roofs, or ponds in landscaped areas or public open space.
  • Siting open space and landscaping so that planting within such areas forms a wildlife corridor between areas of habitat adjacent to the site
  • Making provision on new buildings, or conversions, for species such as bats, swallows or barn owls.
  • Restoring landfill and mineral sites to grassland, heathland or reed bed
  • Using Sustainable Drainage Schemes (SUDS) so that drainage infrastructure (such as reed bed filtration) also acts as biodiversity habitat.

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Examples of design measures that might achieve new benefits which developers should consider include:

  • Creating areas of new habitat such as woodland, rough grassland, wildflower grassland, green roofs, or ponds in landscaped areas or public open space.
  • Siting open space and landscaping so that planting within such areas forms a wildlife corridor between areas of habitat adjacent to the site
  • Making provision on new buildings, for species such as bats, swallows, swifts or barn owls. Restoring landfill and mineral sites to grassland, heathland or reed bed
  • Using Sustainable Drainage Schemes (SUDS) so that drainage infrastructure (such as reed bed filtration) also acts as biodiversity habitat.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.17 Section/Heading: 5.10

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Achieving a net gain in Biodiversity

A net gain for biodiversity means an increase in the abundance, quality or extent of species and/or habitats. In other words, the development of a site results in an increase in the area's biodiversity assets.

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Achieving Biodiversity gains

A gain in biodiversity means an increase in the abundance, quality or extent of species and/or habitats as a result of development. In other words, the development of a site results in an increase in the area's biodiversity assets.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.18 Section/Heading: 5.12

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These areas of safeguarded habitat will be extended or added to through restoration of degraded habitat or creation of new habitat where conditions allow. This will form an extensive network of linked green infrastructure that will provide additional, complementary wildlife habitat, buffering key habitats from adverse impacts related to developed areas of the site and their associated activities.

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These areas of safeguarded habitat will be extended or added to through restoration of degraded habitat or creation of new habitat where conditions allow. This will form an extensive network of linked green infrastructure that will provide additional, complementary wildlife habitat, buffering key habitats from adverse impacts related to developed areas within sites and their associated activities.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.19 Section/Heading: 5.13

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Adequate Information

In dealing with a planning application, the Planning Authority needs to ensure that sufficient information is available about the site's biodiversity, the potential effects of the development on biodiversity both on and off-site and the significance of these effects.

To provide adequate information planning applicants can:

Consider whether the proposed development site is within, or adjacent to, a site designated for nature conservation interest.
Consider fully the site's biodiversity interests and the presence or absence of protected species and habitats of biodiversity importance. A detailed survey may be needed.
Consider linkages with habitats or natural features outside the site.
Contact the Local Record Centre (COFNOD) to obtain site-specific habitat and species data (if it is available) that may assist in shaping the details of any survey.
Consider whether the development requires an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).

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Adequate Information

In dealing with a planning application, the Planning Authority needs to ensure that sufficient information is available about the site's biodiversity, the potential effects of the development on biodiversity on and off-site and the significance of these effects.

To provide adequate information planning applicants can:

Consider whether the proposed development site is within or in close proximity to a site designated for nature conservation interest.
Consider fully the site's biodiversity interests and the presence or absence of protected species and habitats of biodiversity importance. A detailed survey may be needed.
Consider linkages with habitats or natural features outside the site.
Contact the Local Record Centre (such as COFNOD) to obtain site-specific habitat and species data (if it is available) that may assist in informing the function and method of any survey.
Consider whether the development requires an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.20 Section/Heading: 5.14

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Professional surveys and survey reports can assist the developer to:

Identify the key habitats and features within, or adjacent, to the site.
Assess the impact of the development on biodiversity.
Provide sufficient environmental information to the Planning Authority about the site's interests and the likely effects of the development.
Consider whether licences need to be applied for.
Consider whether an Appropriate Assessment may be required under the Habitats Regulations 1994 as amended.

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Professional surveys and survey reports can assist the developer to:

Assess the impact of the development on biodiversity.
Provide sufficient environmental information to the Planning Authority about the site's interests and the likely effects of the development.
Consider whether licences need to be applied for.
Consider whether an Appropriate Assessment may be required under the Habitats Regulations.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.21 Section/Heading: 5.16

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It should be noted that current research aims are being developed for the creation of analogues of BAP habitats on roofs, so very significant contributions to biodiversity are possible.

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It should be noted that currently developing research aims at the creation of analogues of BAP habitats on roofs, so very significant contributions to biodiversity are possible.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.22 Section/Heading: 5.17

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It is important to note that provision for particular species should be guided by what is locally appropriate, and that advice on the amount of provision, its location within the development, siting and associated information should be sourced from an experienced ecologist. Technical guidance on how these features can be incorporated continues to be developed. Details of measures for consideration can be found from the following sources:

Bat Conservation Trust - http://www.bats.org.uk
RSPB (Royal Society for the Protection of Birds) -
http://www.rspb.org.uk
London's Swifts -
http://www.londons-swifts.org.uk
Barn Owl Trust -
http://www.barnowltrust.org.uk
Black Redstarts -
http://www.blackredstarts.org.uk
National Trust -
http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk

INSERTED

It is important to note that provision for particular species should be guided by what is locally appropriate, and that advice on the amount of provision, its location within the development, siting and associated information should be sourced from an experienced ecologist. Technical guidance on how these features can be incorporated continues to be developed. Details of measures for consideration can be found from the following sources:

Bat Conservation Trust - http://www.bats.org.uk
RSPB (Royal Society for the Protection of Birds) -
http://www.rspb.org.uk
London's Swifts -
http://www.londons-swifts.org.uk
Barn Owl Trust -
http://www.barnowltrust.org.uk
Black Redstarts -
http://www.blackredstarts.org.uk

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.23 Section/Heading: 5.18

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Where an impact has been identified the applicant will be expected to mitigate for the impact of development and secure a net biodiversity gain. Many developments, even if they do not contain priority habitats, are important in sustaining more widespread and common species, as well as providing buffering for key habitats. These areas may also provide other green infrastructure functions.

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Where an impact has been identified the applicant will be expected to mitigate the impact of development and secure a net biodiversity gain. Many developments, even if they do not contain priority habitats, are important in sustaining more widespread and common species, as well as providing buffering for key habitats. These areas may also provide other Green Infrastructure functions.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.24 Section/Heading: 5.19

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This can be achieved by following guidance provided in this document and by using specific references listed at the back of the document. These modifications to design should be included on the drawings submitted as part of the application as well as described in the Biodiversity Statement (see Section 6).

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This can be achieved by following guidance provided in this document and by using specific references listed at the back of the document. These modifications to design should be included on the drawings submitted as part of the application as well as described in the Biodiversity Statement.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.25 Section/Heading: 6.1

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All proposals should include a Biodiversity Statement which can be submitted as part of the 'One App' approach or as a separate document. The level of detail will depend on the proposal and extent of impact on biodiversity. This assessment of impact should form the reasoning behind the Biodiversity Statement. This will also provide the framework for delivering net biodiversity gain by setting out what is to be achieved and the steps that are needed to achieve it. Also, most importantly, how biodiversity will be increased and enhanced in advance of and alongside development rather than at the end of the development process.

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All proposals should include a Biodiversity Statement which can be submitted as part of the 'One App' approach in the DAS or as a separate document. The level of detail will depend on the proposal and extent of impact on biodiversity. This assessment of impact should form the reasoning behind the Biodiversity Statement. This will also provide the framework for delivering net biodiversity gain by setting out what is to be achieved and the steps that are needed to achieve it. Also, most importantly, how biodiversity will be increased and enhanced in advance of and alongside development rather than at the end of the development process.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.26 Section/Heading: 6.2

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Larger proposals should include specific measurable targets for net biodiversity gain, reflecting local priorities for biodiversity (and contributing to National targets where appropriate). They should also take account of the challenges posed by climate change.

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Larger proposals should include specific measurable targets for net biodiversity gain, reflecting local priorities for biodiversity (and contributing to Wales' targets as appropriate). They should also take account of the challenges posed by climate change.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.27 Section/Heading: 6.3

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Appendix 5 provides basic examples of what is expected in a Biodiversity Statement in relation to the size and scope of a development. For larger developments the Council encourages developers to engage in pre-application discussions.

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Appendix 4 provides basic examples of what is expected in a Biodiversity Statement in relation to the size and scope of a development. For larger developments the Council encourages developers to engage in pre-application discussions.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.28 Section/Heading: 6.5

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The principal objectives for a Biodiversity Statement are to show how the following have been achieved within the development proposal:

Protecting and enhancing the best of existing biodiversity: key habitat areas of sufficient quality and quantity to support both characteristic and uncommon species should be sustained. These areas include designated conservation sites, and habitats of national, regional and local importance, where environmental conservation is the main priority. Mechanisms and resources will be required for long-term management of these habitats to ensure no net loss as a result of development.

Mitigating the impact of development and securing net biodiversity gain: where nature conservation is not the primary concern, 'supplementary' or 'transitional' habitats (in addition to key habitats) will be important in sustaining more widespread and common species, as well as providing buffering for key habitats.

Integrating biodiversity with the built environment: large scale sites should incorporate a high degree of permeability for wildlife within the built environment, helping to increase and sustain biodiversity. Planning and designing for this is particularly important due to recent changes in building regulations leaving very few roosting or nesting opportunities for certain species in new-build.

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The principal objectives for a Biodiversity Statement are to show how the following have been achieved within the development proposal:

Protecting and enhancing the best of existing biodiversity: key habitat areas of sufficient quality and quantity to support both characteristic and uncommon species should be sustained. These areas include designated conservation sites, and habitats of national, regional and local importance, where environmental conservation is the main priority. Mechanisms and resources will be required for long-term management of these habitats to ensure no net loss as a result of development.

Mitigating the impact of development and securing biodiversity gains: where nature conservation is not the primary concern, 'supplementary' or 'transitional' habitats (in addition to key habitats) will be important in sustaining more widespread and common species, as well as providing buffering for key habitats. These areas may also provide other Green Infrastructure functions.

Integrating biodiversity with the built environment: large scale sites should incorporate a high degree of permeability for wildlife within the built environment, helping to increase and sustain biodiversity. Planning and designing for this is particularly important due to recent changes in building regulations leaving very few roosting or nesting opportunities for certain species in new-build.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.29 Section/Heading: 6.6

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Key elements of a Biodiversity Statement:

Siting, location and context: Adverse impacts of development should be mitigated and compensatory measures should be taken to ensure an overall gain in biodiversity. Strategic site proposals will need to include an Environmental Impact Assessment, context studies, and careful consideration of the siting of the development.
Design: Detailed design of buildings and other structures should include specific measures for biodiversity, including trees in hard landscaping, living ('green') roofs, nesting and roosting sites.
Management: Positive management can ensure long-term sustainability. If left unmanaged, neglect and the impact of development can adversely affect habitats and green spaces. Management should be planned and properly funded, and should involve local communities.
Funding: Allocation of funding for long-term management should be an integral part of the green infrastructure funding arrangements, including the provision of contingency funding.

INSERTED

Key elements of a Biodiversity Statement:

Siting, location and context: Adverse impacts of development should be mitigated and compensatory measures should be taken to ensure an overall gain in biodiversity. Strategic site proposals will need to include an Environmental Impact Assessment, context studies, and careful consideration of the footprint of the development.
Design: Detailed design of buildings and other structures should include specific measures for biodiversity, including trees in hard landscaping, living ('green') roofs, nesting and roosting sites.
Management: Positive management can ensure long-term sustainability. If left unmanaged, neglect and the impact of development can adversely affect habitats and green spaces. Management should be planned and properly funded, and should involve local communities.
Funding: Allocation of funding for long-term management should be an integral part of the green infrastructure funding arrangements, including the provision of contingency funding.

Justification: Minor editorial change

No Comments LDP5 - 030

1.30 Section/Heading: 7.1

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The Welsh Assembly Government is responsible for issuing licences for activities that would be illegal, for example the disturbance of a European protected species, but where a valid justification exists, for example for public health and safety, agricultural purposes etc.

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The Welsh Government is responsible for issuing licences for activities that would be illegal, for example the disturbance of a European protected species, but where a valid justification exists, for example for public health and safety, agricultural purposes etc.

Justification: Minor editorial change

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1.31 Section/Heading: 7.2

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Most licences are issued free of charge. The Countryside Council for Wales also issue licences for certain purposes such as science and education.

Visit: http://www.ccw.gov.uk/landscape--wildlife/habitats--species/species-protection/licensing/application-forms.aspx?lang=en

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Most licences are issued free of charge. CCW also issue licences for certain purposes such as science and education.

Visit: http://www.ccw.gov.uk/landscape--wildlife/habitats--species/species-protection/licensing/application-forms.aspx?lang=en

Justification: Minor editorial change

No Comments LDP5 - 032

1.32 Section/Heading: New paragraph

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Countryside and Rights of Way (CRoW) Act 2000

The CRoW Act 2000A8 provides for public access on foot to certain types of land, amends the law relating to public rights of way, increases measures for the management and protection for Sites of Special Scientific Interest and strengthens wildlife enforcement legislation, and provides for better management of Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty. It also provided for the establishment of Local Access Forums.

Justification: Amended to reflect representations received on the Revised Deposit LDP

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1.33 Section/Heading: 8.1.12

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The Welsh Assembly Government has recognised the important role for the planning system in conserving biodiversity in its planning policy guidance.

INSERTED

The Welsh Government has recognised the important role for the planning system in conserving biodiversity in its planning policy guidance.

Justification: Minor editorial change

No Comments LDP5 - 034

1.34 Section/Heading: 8.1.13

DELETED

Planning Policy Wales (PPW) (2010) sets out the land use planning policies of the Welsh Assembly Government. It is supplemented by a series of Technical Advice Notes (TANs). Procedural advice is given in National Assembly for Wales / Welsh Office circulars. PPW, TANs and circulars together comprise national planning policy to which local planning authorities in Wales must have regard in the preparation of development plans. They may be material to decisions on individual planning applications and will be taken into account by the Assembly Government and Planning Inspectors in the determination of called-in planning applications and appeals.

INSERTED

Planning Policy Wales (PPW) (2011) sets out the land use planning policies of the Welsh Government. It is supplemented by a series of Technical Advice Notes (TANs). Procedural advice is given in National Assembly for Wales / Welsh Office circulars. PPW, TANs and circulars together comprise national planning policy to which local planning authorities in Wales must have regard in the preparation of development plans. They may be material to decisions on individual planning applications and will be taken into account by the Assembly Government and Planning Inspectors in the determination of called-in planning applications and appeals.

Justification: Minor editorial change

No Comments LDP5 - 035

1.35 Section/Heading: New paragraph

INSERTED

Water Framework Directive

The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) came into force in 2000 and was transposed into UK legislation in 2003. The overarching target of the WFD is for all inland and coastal waters to meet 'good ecological status' (or good ecological potential in the case of heavily modified water bodies) at the latest by 2027. In addition to this, no water bodies should deteriorate in status. River Basin Management Plans have been developed for all 11 River Basin Districts in England and Wales. These plans set out the status of waterbodies and the actions that are needed to meet European obligations. Planning has an important role to play in helping to meet these challenges. Advice on the WFD initially provided to local planning authorities by the Environment Agency Wales is still relevant and is accessible at: http://www.environmentagency.gov.uk/research/planning/33102.aspx.

Justification: Amended to reflect representations received on the Revised Deposit LDP

No Comments LDP5 - 036

1.36 Section/Heading: New paragraph

INSERTED

Flood and Water Management Act 2010

Schedule 3 of the Flood and Water Management Act 2010 requires all new developments of over one dwelling to incorporate SuDS into their development plans. These need to be approved by a SuDS Approving Body (SAB) (within local government jurisdiction) before construction begins. Sewerage Undertakers, the Environment Agency, Internal Drainage Boards, British Waterways, and Highway Authorities are to be statutory consultees to the SAB. The Secretary of State has published National Standards for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of SuDS, and all SuDS must, at a minimum, comply with these standards. Local planning authorities can develop these standards further by taking other legislation and policy into account (for example the Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act and species of principal importance), thereby using SuDS for multi-disciplinary functions. Local developers will have to comply with the local standards produced by their local planning authority. Also see policy NTE/9.

Justification: Amended to reflect representations received on the Revised Deposit LDP

No Comments LDP5 - 037

1.37 Section/Heading: 8.2.6

DELETED

It should be noted that nothing in this document introduces additional legislation on any partner organisation or landowner, and compliance with this document is wholly voluntary (although certain partner organisations may be instructed via other documents to comply with this LBAP).

INSERTED

It should be noted that nothing in the LBAP introduces additional obligations on any partner organisation or landowner, and compliance with this document is wholly voluntary (although certain partner organisations may be instructed via other documents to comply with this LBAP).

Justification: Minor editorial change

No Comments LDP5 - 038

1.38 Section/Heading: 8.3

DELETED

If any of the species or habitats listed in column 2 are present on, or adjacent to, the development site you must either use the Biodiversity Statement to explain how all impacts have been avoided, or carry out an appropriate survey and evaluation to enable any impacts to be evaluated

Checklist of Development Activities Habitats or Species affected? Habitat enhancement, creation and management
Riverside development Habitat: ponds, river, other water feature Enhance water feature or create new one. Create habitat suitable for otter / water vole / amphibians; long term management; screening
Species: water vole Ditches with vegetation, undisturbed bankside vegetation; long term management
Species: otter Undisturbed habitat by rivers, establish wet woodland; keep dark by screening
Species: bats Retain and extend riverside woodland and wetlands; keep dark by screening; improve connectivity by tree planting
Species: Kingfisher Trees by rivers/streams, undisturbed bank sides
General Riverside development should be avoided
Barn or rural building conversions Species: bats Provide bat boxes, bat "lofts" or other bat roost provision, suitable planting and habitat links.
Species: barn owl Incorporate barn owl platforms or other suitable spaces within the conversion, extension or renovation; retain mature/decaying trees
Species: Swallows and swifts Dedicate alternative nesting locations; incorporate nest boxes or nest bricks; retain overhanging eaves/cavities for nest sites
Developments affecting greenfield sites e.g. residential or industrial Habitat: Rough grassland, wildflower meadows Species: badger Create area of wildflower-rich grassland, glades, or grassland strips / verges. Plant native species of local origin and allow natural expansion / colonisation; long term management
Developments affecting (or adjacent to) woodland, hedgerows, lines of trees and scrub e.g., residential or industrial Habitat: Woodland Species: Barn owl, other bird species, badger, bats Retain as many trees as possible. Plant new trees, erect suitable nest boxes. Plant native species of local or regional origin and allow natural expansion / colonisation; retain mature or veteran trees, maintain boundaries.
Developments affecting old and veteran trees including any felling or lopping Habitat: Mature trees Species: Barn owl other bird species, bats Maintain existing mature/veteran trees. Pollard or coppice. Leave existing trees in situ and plant new trees to succeed the old ones. Leave standing dead wood, as well as cut deadwood in piles beneath shade. Plant native species of local or regional origin and allow natural expansion / colonisation.
Major residential development, landfill site, commercial industrial site, mineral working Species: Depending on the location of the development, it is possible for any number of species to be present. Restore landfill or mineral sites to habitats that are suitable to the local area; retain new geological exposures through periodic clearance of vegetation.
Species: Newts and other amphibians Create accessible ponds with some shading, adjacent to areas of rough grassland and scrub.
Species: Common lizard and other reptiles Create undisturbed areas of habitat and basking areas of bare ground/short grass on south facing slopes. Create features for hibernation such as stones & log piles.
Species: Other Birds Swift holes, swallow platforms and house martin boxes attached to buildings. Other bird boxes on trees etc., native planting particularly trees with berries / seeds

INSERTED

Checklist of when biodiversity surveys are required
See also Appendix 4 Biodiversity Surveys

Where development is proposed which is likely to have an impact on protected or priority species or habitats, further information must be provided by the applicant in the form of a biodiversity survey and evaluation of impacts. The following table provides guidance on when such surveys are required, and you should ensure that all habitats present on the development site are covered.
Detailed survey information need not be provided where it is decisively shown that the habitat/species will not be affected, either because it is definitely not present or because the design of the development has avoided all possible impacts.
The guidance below is necessarily general, and you are welcome to contact the planning department to confirm site specific requirements.

Habitat Survey requirements *
Ponds, other standing water, ditches Rivers and streamsFens, marshes and swamps Habitat Survey to minimum of enhanced Phase 1 standardGreat crested newtOtterWater voleKingfisherNesting bird
Brownfield sitesGrassland (calcareous, semi-natural neutral, marsh and acid grassland) Habitat Survey to minimum of enhanced Phase 1 standardBadgerReptileNesting bird(Great crested newt if Cofnod has records within 500m)
Sand duneCoastal grasslandCoastal shingle Habitat Survey to minimum of enhanced Phase 1 standardReptileNesting birdFeeding &wintering bird
Foreshore Feeding &wintering bird
Agriculturally improved grassland Badger
Heath and heather moorland Habitat Survey to minimum of enhanced Phase 1 standardReptileNesting bird(Great crested newt if Cofnod has records within 500m)
Hedgerows, scrub, woodland Habitat Survey to minimum of enhanced Phase 1 standardNesting birdDormouseBat
Quarries, cliff faces Habitat Survey to minimum of enhanced Phase 1 standardBatNesting birdReptile
Disused buildings, bridges BatBarn owlNesting bird

* Please note that all biodiversity interest of a site should be recorded by the surveyor, even if it does not appear in the right hand column.

Specific development types Additionally, the following two development types have specific survey requirements, but you may wish to seek further guidance :

Development type Survey requirements
Development in rural areas which includes any roof alteration Bat
Small scale wind turbine development Habitat Survey to minimum of enhanced Phase 1 standardBat

Justification: Minor editorial change - only format changed for clarity

No Comments LDP5 - 039

1.39 Section/Heading: 8.4

DELETED

Appendix 4 - Biodiversity Surveys

INSERTED

Appendix 4 - Biodiversity Statements

Justification: Minor editorial change

View Comments (1) LDP5 - 040

1.40 Section/Heading: 8.4.1

DELETED

Where a survey is required, the following notes provide further guidance.

It is important to remember that as well as the survey itself, the Planning Authority requires an evaluation of impacts, and recommendations for how impacts will be avoided or, if they cannot be avoided, what mitigation is proposed. These will normally be included in the survey report after discussion between the surveyor and the applicant. It may also be useful to involve the LPA in discussions regarding proposed mitigation, to ensure that it is considered appropriate and adequate. This part of the report can replace the Biodiversity Statement if it contains all the information required.

Justification: Moved into Appendix 5 to become paragraph 8.5.1

No Comments LDP5 - 041

1.41 Section/Heading: 8.4.2

DELETED

At the time of publication of this SPG, a common template for presentation of survey results is in preparation for North Wales, and when this is agreed, it will be expected that survey reports will be presented in this format (see www.conwy.gov.uk/biodiversitysurveys )

Justification: Moved into Appendix 5 to become paragraph 8.5.2

No Comments LDP5 - 042

1.42 Section/Heading: 8.4.3

DELETED

By submitting survey results to accompany planning applications, the applicant is giving his/ her consent, and that of the surveyor, to these being passed to Cofnod, the North Wales Environmental Information Service and used to further the knowledge of biodiversity in North Wales, unless the Council is notified in writing that such consent is being withheld.

Justification: Moved into Appendix 5 to become paragraph 8.5.3

No Comments LDP5 - 043

1.43 Section/Heading: 8.4.4

DELETED

Surveys

must be carried out by suitably qualified and experienced persons; if the surveyor is not a IEEM member, or if the surveyor is not previously known to the LPA, then a CV and reference will be required.

must be carried out at an appropriate time and month of the year, in suitable weather conditions and use recognised surveying techniques;

must be to an appropriate and recognised level of scope and detail and must record and map the range of habitats and species of flora and fauna found on site;

must include the results of a search of ecological data from Cofnod, the North Wales Environmental Information Service (searches of the NBN gateway are not normally sufficient)

Justification: Moved into Appendix 5 to become paragraph 8.5.4

No Comments LDP5 - 044

1.44 Section/Heading: 8.4.5

DELETED

Evaluation

must include an assessment of the likely effects of development on the nationally and locally important species and habitats recorded on site or in the locality;

Justification: Moved into Appendix 5 to become paragraph 8.5.5

No Comments LDP5 - 045

1.45 Section/Heading: 8.4.6

DELETED

Mitigation

must identify measures to be taken to avoid impacting on the biodiversity of the site and in the locality, either directly or indirectly, both during construction and afterwards;

Justification: Moved into Appendix 5 to become paragraph 8.5.6

No Comments LDP5 - 046

1.46 Section/Heading: 8.4.7

DELETED

The Council will require additional surveys if the detail provided is deemed inadequate. Mitigation proposals may be imposed by the Council through Planning Conditions, either to ensure that those proposed by the applicant are implemented, or to ensure that mitigation proposals deemed appropriate by the Council are implemented as part of the development

Justification: Moved into Appendix 5 to become paragraph 8.5.7

No Comments LDP5 - 047

1.47 Section/Heading: 8.5

DELETED

Habitat/Species Optimal Survey Time
Grassland May - August
Woodland/hedgerows April - June
Ponds/water courses May - June
Birds, their nests and eggs (breeding ) March - August
Birds Wintering October - March
Water vole March - October
Otter Search for signs at any time but note flooding along watercourses may remove spraints
Dormouse Hazel nut searches September - November Nest searches May - September
Bats Depends on nature of roost e.g. summer roosts and feeding areas April - September but may occupy separate hibernation roosts October - March
Badger Sett surveys October - April Bait marking February - April and September - October
Grass snake, adder, slow worm, common lizard April - June and September
Fish Varies for species, life stages and environmental conditions
Invertebrates All year for different larval and adult life stages.
Fungi July - December

INSERTED

Survey for: Type J F M A M J J A S O N D
Birds Breeding
Wintering
Reptiles Presence
Great crested Newts Presence
Water Vole Presence
Otter Search for signs at any time but note flooding along watercourses may remove spraints.
Badger Sett surveys
Bait marking
Dormice Hazel nut searches
Nest searches
Bats Roosts
Hibernating
Marsh fritillary Butterfly Presence
High brown fritillary butterfly
Habitats: Grassland
Woodland/hedgerow
Ponds/watercourses
Fungi

Justification: Minor editorial change

No Comments LDP5 - 048

1.48 Section/Heading: 8.6.5

DELETED

The UK GBC's online portal at http://www.ukgbc.org/site/info-centre/display-category?id=111 provides detailed guidance on how to enhance biodiversity in the built environment. The full report, sector-specific guidance and case studies linked to the report can be found at: http://www.ukgbc.org/site/taskgroups/info?id=2

INSERTED

The UK GBC's online portal at http://www.ukgbc.org/ provides detailed guidance on how to enhance biodiversity in the built environment.

Justification: Minor editorial change

No Comments LDP5 - 049

1.49 Section/Heading: 8.6.19

DELETED

Offences under Section 9 carry a maximum penalty of a fine up to £5000, imprisonment for up to six months, or both, for each animal in respect of which an offence is committed. No offence will be committed if the activity which would otherwise result in the commission of an offence is carried out under (and in accordance with) a licence granted by the Countryside Council for Wales or the Welsh Assembly Government under section 16 (3) of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.

INSERTED

Offences under Section 9 carry a maximum penalty of a fine up to £5000, imprisonment for up to six months, or both, for each animal in respect of which an offence is committed. No offence will be committed if the activity which would otherwise result in the commission of an offence is carried out under (and in accordance with) a licence granted by the Countryside Council for Wales or the Welsh Government under section 16 (3) of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.

Justification: Minor editorial change

No Comments LDP5 - 050

1.50 Section/Heading: 8.6.21

DELETED

Licences are available from the Welsh Assembly Government under section 16(3) for the following purposes:

Preserving public health or public safety;
Preventing the spread of disease;
Preventing serious damage to livestock, foodstuffs for livestock, crops, vegetables, fruit, growing timber or any other form of property or to fisheries.

INSERTED

Licences are available from the Welsh Government under section 16(3) for the following purposes:

Preserving public health or public safety;
Preventing the spread of disease;
Preventing serious damage to livestock, foodstuffs for livestock, crops, vegetables, fruit, growing timber or any other form of property or to fisheries.

Justification: Minor editorial change

No Comments LDP5 - 051

1.51 Section/Heading: 8.6.25

DELETED

Any person intending to carry out development or maintenance work in these circumstances will need to make their own judgement as to whether the steps they have taken are likely to be sufficient to enable them to establish - in the event of a prosecution - that their acts were the incidental result of a lawful operation and could not reasonably have been avoided. Ultimately, however, this will be a matter for a court to determine on the basis of the particular facts and for that reason neither the Welsh Assembly Government or the Countryside Council for Wales can provide legal advice on this issue.

INSERTED

Any person intending to carry out development or maintenance work in these circumstances will need to make their own judgement as to whether the steps they have taken are likely to be sufficient to enable them to establish - in the event of a prosecution - that their acts were the incidental result of a lawful operation and could not reasonably have been avoided. Ultimately, however, this will be a matter for a court to determine on the basis of the particular facts and for that reason neither the Welsh Government or the Countryside Council for Wales can provide legal advice on this issue.

Justification: Minor editorial change

No Comments LDP5 - 052

1.52 Section/Heading: 8.7.8

DELETED

The monitoring might include:

the establishment of new or enhanced habitat - success criteria can be set
the effectiveness of relevant mitigation and compensation measures - success criteria can be set complying with wildlife law after planning permission has been granted; this responsibility is shared between the developer (who ensures that the work carried out is according to the planning permission and expert advice), the local planning authority (who ensures that the conditions/obligations are complied with), the Welsh Assembly Government (who ensures that the conditions of any licence are complied with) and the Countryside Council for Wales (who advises on protected species).

INSERTED

The monitoring might include:

the establishment of new or enhanced habitat - success criteria can be set
the effectiveness of relevant mitigation and compensation measures - success criteria can be set complying with wildlife law after planning permission has been granted; this responsibility is shared between the developer (who ensures that the work carried out is according to the planning permission and expert advice), the local planning authority (who ensures that the conditions/obligations are complied with), the Welsh Government (who ensures that the conditions of any licence are complied with) and the Countryside Council for Wales (who advises on protected species).

Justification: Minor editorial change

No Comments LDP5 - 053

1.53 Section/Heading: 9.4

DELETED

CIWEM (2004) Habitats Guide. Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management: London. http://www.ciwem.org/publications/habitats.asp

INSERTED

CIWEM (2004) Habitats Guide. Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management: London. http://www.ciwem.org/

Justification: Minor editorial change

No Comments LDP5 - 054

1.54 Section/Heading: 9.5

DELETED

UK GBC Biodiversity Task Group (2009) Biodiversity and the Built Environment. UK Green Building Council: London. http://www.ukgbc.org/site/taskgroups/info?id=2

INSERTED

UK GBC Biodiversity Task Group (2009) Biodiversity and the Built Environment. UK Green Building Council: London. http://www.ukgbc.org/resources/publication/uk-gbc-task-group-report-biodiversity-and-built-environment

Justification: Minor editorial change

No Comments LDP5 - 055

1.55 Section/Heading: 10.

DELETED

Action for swifts www.actionforswifts.com/nestsites.htm
Bat Conservation Trust www.bats.org.uk
Barn Owl Trust www.barnowltrust.org.uk
Black Redstarts - http://www.blackredstarts.org.uk
Building Research Establishment (BRE) www.bre.co.uk/sustainable
The Butterfly Conservation www.butterfly-conservation.org
Centre for Alternative Technology www.cat.org.uk
COFNOD www.cofnod.org.uk
Conwy County Borough Council www.conwy.gov.uk
Conwy BAP http://www.conwy.gov.uk/sectionextra.asp?cat=1361&Language=1an
Denbighshire County Borough Council www.denbighshire.gov.uk
Denbighshire County Borough Council Biodiversity http://www.biodiversityindenbighshire.co.uk
Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme www.energy-efficiency.gov.uk
Joint Nature Conservation Committee www.jncc.gov.uk
Living Roofs www.livingroofs.org
London's Swifts http://www.londons-swifts.org.uk
National Trust www.nationaltrust.org.uk
North Wales Wildlife Trust www.northwaleswildlifetrust.org.uk
376 High St, Bangor, Gwynedd LL571YE. Tel 01248 351541
Planning Policy Wales www.wales.gov.uk/topics/planning/policy/ppw2010
Renewable Energy SPG, Energy Savings Trust www.est.org.uk
Renewable Energy www.dti.gov.uk/renewables
RSPB www.rspb.org.uk
Sustainable Homes www.sustainablehomes.co.uk
UK BAP www.ukbap.org.uk
Welsh Assembly Government www.wales.gov.uk

INSERTED

Action for swifts www.actionforswifts.blogspot.com/
Bat Conservation Trust www.bats.org.uk
Barn Owl Trust www.barnowltrust.org.uk
Black Redstarts - http://www.blackredstarts.org.uk
British Trust of Ornithology http://www.bto.org
Buglife http://www.buglife.org.uk
Building Research Establishment (BRE) www.bre.co.uk/sustainable
The Butterfly Conservation www.butterfly-conservation.org
Centre for Alternative Technology www.cat.org.uk
CIRIA http://www.ciria.org
COFNOD www.cofnod.org.uk
Conwy County Borough Council www.conwy.gov.uk
Conwy BAP http://www.conwy.gov.uk/sectionextra.asp?cat=1361&Language=1an
Denbighshire County Borough Council www.denbighshire.gov.uk
Denbighshire County Borough Council Biodiversity http://www.biodiversityindenbighshire.co.uk
Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/environmentandgreenerliving/energyandwatersaving/index.htm
Environment Agency http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk
Forestry Commission http://www.forestry.gov.uk
Joint Nature Conservation Committee www.jncc.gov.uk
Living Roofs www.livingroofs.org
London's Swifts http://www.londons-swifts.org.uk
National Trust www.nationaltrust.org.uk
North Wales Wildlife Trust www.northwaleswildlifetrust.org.uk
376 High St, Bangor, Gwynedd LL571YE. Tel 01248 351541
Planning Policy Wales http://wales.gov.uk/docs/desh/publications/110228ppwedition4en.pdf
Renewable Energy SPG, Energy Savings Trust www.est.org.uk
Renewable Energy http://www.decc.gov.uk/
RSPB www.rspb.org.uk
Sustain http://www.sustainweb.org
Sustainable Homes www.sustainablehomes.co.uk
Town and Country Planning Association (TCPA) http://www.tcpa.org.uk
Trees and Design Action Group http://www.forestry.gov.uk/tdag
UK BAP www.ukbap.org.uk
Welsh Government www.wales.gov.uk
Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust http://www.wwt.org.uk
The Wildlife Trusts (TWT) http://www.wildlifetrusts.org
Woodland Trust http://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk

Justification: Minor editorial change- further links added for clarity.

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