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Replacement Local Development Plan


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The Local Development Plan (LDP) provides the legal framework for the development and use of land within the County Borough (excluding that part covered by the Snowdonia National Park Authority). It also provides the context for determining local planning applications. As the local planning authority, we are responsible for preparing and updating the Local Development Plan.
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Paper 1: Priority Issues, Vision and Objectives


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Conwy Replacement LDP Priority Issues and Objectives

5.1 The LDP objectives set out what the Plan is trying to achieve having understood the key issues impacting on the County Borough. They reflect the proposed Vision and are formed having undertaken a review of the wider national, regional and local policy context, baseline evidence base and having identified initial sustainability issues in the Sustainability Appraisal Scoping Report. These tasks have enabled us to understand the broader context and identify the main issues and objectives to be addressed in the Conwy RLDP. Additionally, the existing LDP objectives and planning policies have also been reviewed, for example the frequency of their use in development management decisions and/or their effectiveness in recent planning appeals. The individual Issues & Options Papers, Topic Papers and supporting Background Papers detail the outcome of these key tasks and the implications for the RLDP.
5.2 The key planning and sustainability issues have been used to develop the proposed RLDP objectives set out in Table 2 below, which in turn seek to deliver the proposed Vision. The objectives are structured in line with the overarching Vision and proposed themes and subject areas of the RLDP. Some of the proposed objectives also cover a number of individual issues identified. For consistency the table identifies the key issues, sources and resulting objectives, which are grouped under the proposed RLDP Structure (Themes and Subject Areas). Some of the proposed objectives cover a number of separate issues. The proposed objectives have also been tested against the Sustainability Objectives set out in the SA Scoping Report (refer to BP04). As with the Vision, the objectives are a starting point and may change once evidence is finalised.
Table 2 Proposed RLDP Objectives

Key Issues and Problems (Planning and Sustainability Appraisal)

Source

Proposed Objective to cover the Issue/Problem

Placemaking

Creating Sustainable Places, Making Spatial Choices and Placemaking in Urban and Rural Settlements: As per the Key Planning Principles and Sustainable Placemaking Outcomes there is a need to ensure that the RLDP facilitates the right development in the right place. The RLDP needs to promote prosperity by meeting the social, environmental cultural and economic needs. Making the best use of existing infrastructure should be promoted and where new infrastructure is required it must align with new development.

There is also a need to align with the emerging National Development Framework (NDF) for Wales, the North Wales Growth Deal and the potential preparation of a possible SDP for the A55 Corridor.

The Adopted LDP (2007 - 2002) does not take account of the new policy guidance related to Sustainable Places and therefore a new objective is proposed.

Draft National Development Framework (NDF)

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft Edition 10

Welsh Government Key Planning Principles

Welsh Government Placemaking Sustainable Outcomes

Technical Advice Notes

North Wales Growth Deal

Adopted LDP (2007 - 2022)

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 1 (SO1): Contribute to the creation of sustainable places, social inclusion and improved wellbeing overall in Conwy through the delivery of inclusive placemaking and regeneration that ensures future growth levels and development takes place in sustainable and accessible locations, seeks to promote good design and healthier places, protects Welsh language and is supported by the necessary social, environmental, cultural and economic infrastructure to create great places.

Related Objectives: All Objectives

Healthy Places and Wellbeing: There is need to address specific health and wellbeing issues as identified in the Conwy and Denbighshire Wellbeing Plan including with respect to physical and mental health, social wellbeing and community safety. As such, the scope of the Adopted LDP (2007 - 2022) objectives should be broadened.

Overall, CCBC residents are performing slightly better than average in Wales for health indicators such as obesity, mental illness and alcohol consumption. However, consistency of physical exercise and alcohol specific hospital admissions are considerably worse than the rest of Wales.

There is a need to protect and improve access to healthcare services and facilities, reduce health inequalities and improve the physical and mental health and wellbeing of communities. There is a need to facilitate or encourage active travel or physical recreation and increase the accessibility and quality of open space provision. The RLDP should also take note of the notable health inequalities of the CCBC area's resident population compared with regional and national averages. It should set out proposals, policies and guidance to safeguard and improve amenity, quality of life and health outcomes (physical and mental) for all within the CCBC area, i.e. for both the workforce and residents.

Wellbeing of Future Generations Act 2015

Conwy and Denbighshire Wellbeing Plan (2017 - 2023)

Topic Paper

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 1 (SO1): Contribute to the creation of sustainable places, social inclusion and improved wellbeing overall in Conwy through the delivery of inclusive placemaking and regeneration that ensures future growth levels and development takes place in sustainable and accessible locations, seeks to promote good design and healthier places, protects Welsh language and is supported by the necessary social, environmental, cultural and economic infrastructure to create great places.

Related Objectives: All Objectives

Good Design, the Built Environment and Placemaking: There is a requirement to maximise the efficient use of land and infrastructure and enhance design quality to create great places for people to live, work and visit in Conwy.

There is a need to ensure that the RLDP focuses on design quality in the built environment, which is important given the mix of settlement types and predominantly rural character of the CCBC area. Design and placemaking issues will be of relevance to some RLDP components (e.g. design related policies and site allocations).

The RLDP needs to ensure that it promotes high quality architecture and design which strengthens local distinctiveness and fosters a sense of place for communities. Creating and maintaining a safe and attractive public realm which encourages people to walk and cycle are key issues for the RLDP. Developments should be of appropriate scale, siting, massing and density and make the best use of land, including through prioritising the redevelopment of brownfield sites and locating high footfall uses close to the public transport network.

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft (Edition 10)

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 1 (SO1): Contribute to the creation of sustainable places, social inclusion and improved wellbeing overall in Conwy through the delivery of inclusive placemaking and regeneration that ensures future growth levels and development takes place in sustainable and accessible locations, seeks to promote good design and healthier places, protects Welsh language and is supported by the necessary social, environmental, cultural and economic infrastructure to create great places.

Related Objectives: All Objectives

Creating Sustainable Places and Making Spatial Choices (brownfield Land and Constrained Settlements): There is a lack of brownfield capacity to accommodate growth over the Plan Period. Some settlements along the coastal corridor are highly constrained, mainly resulting from topography to the south, flood risk to the north and highways capacity.

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft (Edition 10)

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Conwy Tidal Flood Risk Assessment

Conwy Flood Defence Review

Joint Housing Land Availability Studies

Natural Resources Wales 'Clwyd Tidal Flood Risk Management Plan

Strategic Objective 1 (SO1): Contribute to the creation of sustainable places, social inclusion and improved wellbeing overall in Conwy through the delivery of inclusive placemaking and regeneration that ensures future growth levels and development takes place in sustainable and accessible locations, seeks to promote good design and healthier places, protects Welsh language and is supported by the necessary social, environmental, cultural and economic infrastructure to create great places.

Related Objectives: All Objectives

Equality and Social Inclusion: Some parts of the CCBC area, especially in the Northern Coastal urban communities, are among the most deprived areas of Wales, with low levels of economic activity and access to facilities and services, particularly for children, young people and elderly populations. Conversely, the rural South of CCBC has some of the least deprived communities in Wales. There is a need to reduce poverty and inequality, tackle social exclusion and promote community cohesion, including through enhancing access to community facilities. There is a need to ensure that the communities are in close proximity to existing community facilities, public services and key amenities.

A holistic strategy is needed to address multiple deprivation within parts of the CCBC area, including but not limited to the creation of new, high quality employment opportunities. The RLDP will need to set out a clear employment land strategy to support the provision of new employment opportunities in appropriate and accessible locations. The RLDP will need to include a regeneration strategy and associated policies and proposals to catalyse a range of physical, environmental, health and socio-economic improvements within identified deprived communities.

Wellbeing of Future Generations Act 2015

Conwy and Denbighshire Wellbeing Plan (2017 - 2023)

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 1 (SO1): Contribute to the creation of sustainable places, social inclusion and improved wellbeing overall in Conwy through the delivery of inclusive placemaking and regeneration that ensures future growth levels and development takes place in sustainable and accessible locations, seeks to promote good design and healthier places, protects Welsh language and is supported by the necessary social, environmental, cultural and economic infrastructure to create great places.

Related Objectives: All Objectives

Welsh Language: CCBC's Welsh Language Strategy commits the Council to treating Welsh and English on an equal basis when carrying out public business. CCBC is additionally dedicated to helping raise the profile of the Welsh language and culture to residents and employees.

There is a need to safeguard and support the increased use of the Welsh language amongst the resident population of the CCBC area. Any RLDP should include policy provisions to support growth in the use of the Welsh language.

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft (Edition 10)

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Conwy and Denbighshire Wellbeing Plan (2017 - 2023)

CCBC Welsh Language Strategy

Strategic Objective 1 (SO1): Contribute to the creation of sustainable places, social inclusion and improved wellbeing overall in Conwy through the delivery of inclusive placemaking and regeneration that ensures future growth levels and development takes place in sustainable and accessible locations, seeks to promote good design and healthier places, protects Welsh language and is supported by the necessary social, environmental, cultural and economic infrastructure to create great places.

Related Objectives: All Objectives

Social

Market and Affordable Housing Growth Levels, Developer Capacity, Coherent Strategies, Housing Type, Sizes and Tenure and Gypsy and Traveller Accommodation.

Accommodating Housing Need: In creating sustainable places in Conwy the RLDP will need to consider the implications of the most up-to-date population and household projections, the Local Housing Market Assessment (LHMA) and the jobs growth impacts associated with the Conwy Employment Land Review (ELR) and the regional economic drivers promoted in the North Wales Growth Deal in determining sustainable levels of housing and employment growth. In terms of housing, various population, housing and jobs growth projections have been considered which conclude potential housing growth levels ranging from between 1,800 and 17,300 new homes over the plan period (2018 - 2033). The LHMA conclusions have been updated to reflect 2017 population projections, which concludes an annual affordable housing requirement of 190 units (2850 over the RLDP period). The proposed housing growth levels would deliver between approximately 360 and 3450 new affordable homes.

Developer Capacity: The average annual delivery, as identified in the Conwy Housing Land Availability Studies, over the past 5 years is 244 homes, with highest delivery being 320 new homes in 2017. There is a need to ensure that the growth level applied in the RLDP takes into account the capacity of the home building industry to deliver.

Coherent and Holistic Strategies: It will be important for the RLDP to set out coherent and holistic strategies in respect of housing and employment land and community infrastructure provision to meet current and expected future needs.

Housing Type, Sizes and Tenure: Slow population growth, negative natural changes (more deaths than births) and projected population ageing are likely to create issues for long term workforce replacement and to increase pressures on a range of public services. Out-migration of the early working age population in CCBC presents an issue with retaining its young adult population. As a result there is a need to ensure that the RLDP seeks to deliver the housing needs of an aging population, but at the same ensuring that new homes seek to retain younger population the area. The housing types (including adapted living), sizes and tenure set out in the LHMA should be promoted through the RLDP.

Gypsy and Traveller Needs Accommodation Study: Concludes that the RLDP should promote land to accommodate a transit site for 7 pitches. Conwy recently delivered a residential site in Conwy for 4 pitches.

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft (Edition 10)

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 2 (SO2): Promote a holistic and co-located employment and housing growth strategy by delivering new homes, including affordable homes and gypsy and traveller accommodation needs in sustainable and accessible locations, and ensuring that the right range of housing types, sizes and tenure are brought forward alongside the necessary community infrastructure.

Related Objectives: SO1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 & 16

Retailing and Commercial Centres: Planning authorities should establish, through their development plan, a clear strategy for retail development, supported by policies, to achieve vibrant, attractive and viable retail and commercial centres. The strategy and policies should set out a

framework for the future of retail and commercial centres in their area, taking into account strategies in adjoining authorities, to promote a successful retailing sector supporting existing and new communities. In support the Council has produced a Joint Retail Study with Denbighshire, which concludes the need for new major convenience and comparison retail between Colwyn Bay and the remaining East of the County Borough. Additionally, Town Centre Health Checks have been undertaken to assess the vibrancy, viability and attractiveness of towns. Some towns within the County Borough experience good health and low vacancy levels, whilst others have experienced decline over recent years due to current focus on A1 retail policy and certain town centre shop closures (e.g. high street banks). Through the RLDP there is a need to ensure that these retail needs, pressures and opportunities are supported by appropriate retail strategies. In some situations it may be necessary to take pro-active steps to identify retail and commercial centre locations for expansion. In others it may be necessary to identify measures to reinvigorate centres or to manage a change in the relative importance of a centre as other centres' roles expand.

As a result of national policy and local evidence base there is a need to amend the current LDP Retail Objective

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft (Edition 10)

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 3 (SO3): Achieve vibrant, attractive and viable town and commercial centres in Conwy by redefining their role and by encouraging a diversity of activities and uses.

Related Objectives: SO1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14 & 16

Community Facilities: Community facilities perform various functions which cover a broad range of activities and services that can be delivered by the public, private and third sectors. Community facilities contribute to a sense of place which is important to the health, well-being and amenity of local communities and their existence is often a key element in creating viable and sustainable communities. They can include schools, cultural facilities, health services, libraries, allotments and places of worship. Many of these are also historic assets.

Further community infrastructure will be required to support the projected ageing population within the CCBC area. Access to services within rural areas is a particular problem with the 9 LSOAs ranked within the 10% most deprived for access to services nationally.

There are currently 53 primary schools and 7 secondary schools within the CCBC area. Each school utilises varying degrees of English and Welsh spoken languages. Some of these schools are at capacity or may reach capacity depending on new homes and population increase in the future. The RLDP will need to ensure that the land requirements for new schools is delivered coherently with housing growth.

CCBC operates 10 libraries (Abergele, Conwy, Llanfairfechan, Penrhyn Bay, Cerrigydrudion, Kinmel Bay, Llanrwst, Colwyn Bay, Llandudno and Penmaenmawr). There are also four leisure centres in Conwy (Abergele, Colwyn, Llandudno and Llanrwst Pool).

As detailed in the Topic Papers and Background Papers, there are also needs for allotments and burial grounds. Various Health establishments have also reached capacity and as such any land requirements as a result of growth will need to be dealt with by the RLDP.

The LDP Review should identify adequate provision of community infrastructure to meet existing and projected future population needs.

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft (Edition 10)

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 4: Contribute to a sense of place and overall health, wellbeing and amenity of local communities by ensuring that the existing and future population groups have access to a sustainable mix of community facilities.

Related Objectives: SO1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14 & 16

Recreational Spaces: Recreational spaces are vital for our health, well-being and amenity and can contribute to an areas green infrastructure. They provide a place for play, sport, healthy physical activity and a place to relax, often in the presence of nature, and contribute to our quality of life. Networks of high quality, accessible green spaces and recreation space provision will also promote nature conservation, biodiversity and provide enjoyable opportunities for residents and visitors to participate in a wide range of physical activities in order to promote physical and mental well-being.

There a need for the RLDP to support the development of sport and recreation, and the wide range of leisure pursuits which encourage physical activity. There is a need to identify, manage, expand and enhance the County Borough's Green Infrastructure network, including areas of public open space and recognise its importance in delivering local environmental, socio economic and health benefits, which are identified as key issues in the Conwy and Denbighshire Wellbeing Plan. The Conwy Open Space Assessment also identifies areas of shortfall within some areas of the County Borough

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft (Edition 10)

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 5: Encourage physical and mental wellbeing through the provision and protection of high quality, accessible green spaces and recreation space networks.

Related Objectives: SO1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 13, 14, 15 & 16

Transport: At present, parts of the highway network in the CCBC area experience congestion especially at peak times (A55 and A470). Improvements to infrastructure in urban and rural areas will bring a step-change in public transport connectivity which should be used to catalyse economic growth and improve access to employment and public services within the CCBC area.

Road Network: The Core Road Network connects the CCBC area to adjacent County Boroughs and to regional transport consortium areas. The following roads constitute the Core Roads Network in the CCBC area: A55 (Northern Coastal route) and A470 (Central route).The two main core roads connect local areas of population and major settlements, adjoining with B-road networks and all classified unnumbered routes within the CCBC area.

Public Transport: Conwy has multiple town railway stations (Abergele & Pensam, Colywn Bay, Llandudno Junction, Conwy, Penmaenmawr and Llanfairfechan) on the North Wales mainline route with connections to many other major destinations. Additionally, the Conwy Valley line runs from Llandudno station, connecting many rural villages; Deganwy, Glan Conwy, Tal-y-Cafn, Dolgarrog, North Llanrwst, Llanrwst, Betws-y-Coed, Pont-y-pant, Dolwyddelan, Roman Bridge and Blaenau Ffestiniog. There are multiple bus services connecting the major Northern settlements and the Snowdon Sherpa bus service connecting the six main Snowdon routes and surrounding villages.

Aviation and Maritime: Liverpool John Lennon Airport and Manchester Airport are located within a 75-minute journey of Conwy, and Anglesey Airport (with flights to Cardiff International Airport) is located 40 minutes away. This allows access to both National and International destinations for passengers and freight. The two main ports in North Wales (Port of Holyhead and Mostyn Port) are all within 40 minutes of Conwy, providing national and international ferry/cruise and freight access. Mostyn Port is one of Europe's main wind turbine assembly/installation locations. Port of Holyhead offers ferry connections to the Republic of Ireland, operated by Stena Line.

Active Travel: Active travel routes within the CCBC area are described as being poor and lacking investment. As of 2013, the Active Travel (Wales) Act requires integrated network map (INM) active travel routes to be delivered.

Due to some changes in national and regional policy there is a need to amend the current LDP objective for transport.

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft (Edition 10)

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 6 (SO6): Deliver sustainable development and seek to tackle the causes of climate change by extending the choice of sustainable transport to enable Conwy's communities to access jobs and key services through the promotion of shorter and more active and efficient walking, cycling and public transport use and by influencing the location, scale, density, mix of uses and design of new development,

Related Objectives: All objectives

Economy

Economic Development: - There is a need to understand the implications of the 120,000 proposed jobs set out in the North Wales Growth Deal and seek to accommodate the land-use needs in Conwy. The Conwy Employment Land Review (ELR 2018) and the Regional Economic Drivers Report concludes that Conwy would need to accommodate in the region of an additional 1800 jobs over the RLDP Period. The ELR states that the employment land allocations should be split 50% B1 Business and 50% for B2/B8 Industrial and Warehousing. The Conwy Property Market Assessment indicates that new employment land should be located along the key A55 trans-European route.

The Conwy Economic Strategy also promotes the use of urban town centres as key areas for employment growth.

In 2017, of the 76.6% of the economically active working population in Conwy, 73.3% were in employment which was higher than across Wales (72.4%) but lower than Great Britain (74.9%) 23.4% of Conwy's working population are economically inactive (Wales - 24.0%) (Great Britain - 21.6%)

The official unemployment rate in the CCBC area stood at 4.2% for 2017, which was lower than the unemployment rate across Wales (4.8%) and Great Britain (4.4%). Related to this, in 2016 the CCBC area had a jobs density of 0.78 (ratio of jobs to resident working age population) compared with 0.76 across Wales and 0.84 for Great Britain.

There is a need to support the development of business networks and clusters particularly in relation to innovative and technology based enterprise.

As result of national and regional policy changes and new evidence base there is a need to amend the current LDP objective.

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft (Edition 10)

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 7 (SO7): Support long-term economic prosperity, diversification and regeneration, by taking advantage of Conwy's strategic position within the wider regional growth deal and by promoting a holistic and co-located employment and housing growth strategy, which will facilitate new jobs growth of the right type in sustainable and accessible locations, support business networks and clusters, increase skills in high value employment and provide the necessary new infrastructure, which overall will enable new businesses to locate in Conwy and existing business to grow.

Related Objectives: SO1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 & 16

Tourism: Tourism involves a wide range of activities, facilities and types of development and is vital to economic prosperity and job creation in many parts of Conwy. Tourism can be a catalyst for regeneration, improvement of the built environment and environmental protection. Therefore the RLDP will need to encourage tourism where it contributes to economic development, conservation, rural diversification, urban regeneration and social inclusion, while recognising the needs of visitors and those of local communities. There will be a need to ensure sustainable tourism is promoted which seeks to accommodate all-year round tourism as opposed to seasonal.

The RLDP should provide a framework for maintaining and developing well-located, well designed, good quality tourism facilities. They should consider the scale and broad distribution of existing and proposed tourist attractions and enable complementary developments such as accommodation and access to be provided in ways which limit negative environmental impacts.

Tourism plays a very important part in Conwy's economy and should be supported by the RLDP in a sustainable way. Tourism in Conwy has historically been supported by excellent natural and historic assets, as well as being strategically located to the coast and to Snowdonia National Park. More recently there has been growth in sustainable all-year round outdoor and adventure tourism business. This has seen a demand in holiday accommodation. The Conwy Tourism Growth Strategy is in production which will assess and understand the demand for such business and related accommodation over the RLDP period. There will be a need for the RLDP to accommodate the demand through land allocations and appropriate policies. A Conwy Tourism Accommodation is also in production to further understand demand and supply issues for the RLDP.

In rural areas, tourism-related development is an essential element in providing for a healthy and diverse economy and will need careful consideration in reviewing the RLDP. Tourism development in rural areas will need to be sympathetic in nature and scale to the local environment.

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft (Edition 10)

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 8 (S08): Encourage and support the provision of sustainable tourism where it contributes to economic prosperity and development, conservation, rural diversification, regeneration and social inclusion, while recognising the needs of visitors, businesses, local communities and the need to protect historic and natural environments.

Related Objectives: SO1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 13, 15 & 16

Rural Economy: A strong rural economy is essential to support sustainable and vibrant rural communities. The establishment of new enterprise and the expansion of existing business is crucial to the growth and stability of rural areas, supported by the required housing and necessary community infrastructure.

Conwy's rural settlements accommodate approximately 15% of the County Borough's population. The majority of the settlements fall some distance from the higher order urban centres, and as such economic development and the necessary infrastructure will need to be considered in the RLDP.

The RLDP will need to adopt a constructive approach towards agricultural

development proposals, especially those which are designed to meet the needs of changing farming practices or are necessary to achieve compliance with new environmental, hygiene or welfare legislation. In addition the RLDP should adopt a positive approach to the conversion of rural buildings for business re-use

Small economic activities can often be sustainably located on farms and other rural businesses and provide additional income streams. The RLDP will need to adopt a positive approach to diversification projects in rural areas. Diversification can strengthen the rural economy and bring additional employment and prosperity to communities.

As a result of national guidance changes and new evidence the existing LDP Objective is considered unsuitable to be carried over.

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft (Edition 10)

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 9 (S09): Promote and support sustainable and vibrant rural communities by establishing new enterprise, expanding existing business and by adopting a constructive approach to agriculture and changing farming practices.

Related Objectives: All objectives

Energy and Climate Change: - Climate change research predicts an increase in the severity and frequency of rainfall events. Flooding from rivers, sewers and surface water is therefore likely to increase throughout CCBC in the future. CCBC is also expected to become increasingly vulnerable to tidal flooding as sea levels rise.

The 2004 Foresight Future Flooding report suggested that the annual economic damage in Wales will rise from £70 million in 2004 to £1,235 million in the 2080s under the most likely scenario. However, as the Stern Report found, acting now can reduce the longer term total economic damage.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 2015 statistics from InfoBase Cymru show that total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from within CCBC (4.9) show CO2 levels per resident (tonnes) below the Welsh average (8.0) in 2016. Although positive, reductions in the level of GHG emissions need to continually be made.

CCBC provided 2.7% of low carbon energy generation for Wales in 2015. However, this can be improved through further generation of future renewable capacity

The RLDP should set out policies, proposals and guidance to support the transition to a low carbon economy. This should include the provision of a supportive policy framework for renewable and low carbon energy generation in appropriate locations. The RLDP should also include policies to encourage low carbon design and should set out a sustainable transport strategy which capitalises on existing rail and port infrastructure within the CCBC area to contribute to the decarbonisation of the transport sector.

The Conwy Renewable Energy Review also sets out strategic proposals for wind and solar that the RLDP will need to factor. Additionally the Conwy Economic Strategy promotes increased renewable energy schemes and an aspiration to bring forward a Tidal Lagoon along the north wales coast, which would see improved flood resilience, tourism and leisure generation and regeneration in addition to renewable energy generation.

The RLDP should secure an appropriate mix of energy provision, which maximises benefits to Conwy's economy and communities whilst minimising potential environmental and social impacts. It should fully recognise the benefits of renewable and low carbon energy as part of the overall commitment to tackle climate change and increase energy security.

As a result of national, regional and local policy change and new evidence it is proposed to amend the existing LDP objective.

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft (Edition 10)

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 10 (S010): Secure an appropriate mix of energy provision, including the promotion of a Tidal Lagoon, which maximises benefits to Conwy's economy and communities whilst minimising potential environmental and social impacts.

Related Objectives: SO1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 16 & 16

Minerals and Waste: The RLDP should promote change towards a circular economy by influencing the choices of materials used as part of development, encouraging a more adaptable and durable approach to building design, designing out waste using materials which are, or can be, remanufactured, can be refurbished, can be dissembled and recycled or can be deconstructed and reused and ensuring security of supply of materials which society needs, including primary minerals. This will help to ensure the availability of materials in the long term so as not to burden future generations. Time spent at the design stage is a vital means of making effective use of resources and securing multiple benefits.

Waste disposal, recycling and treatment occurs at the Conwy Council Recycling Centre. In 2016-2017, of the total 62,560 tonnes of municipal waste generated, 39,149 tonnes were re-used, recycled or composted, and 5,438 tonnes were incinerated with 62.6% of waste reused/recycled/composted. This left only 17,813 tonnes which was sent to landfill.

The UK recycling rate for Waste from Households in 2016 was 45.2% compared with a welsh average of 57.3%.

The CCBC area exceeds average recycling rates for both the UK and Wales overall, with Wales also continuing an upward trend. Current recycling proficiency in Conwy should be maintained and continually improved upon if possible through RLDP

A dominant feature of CCBC is the small valleys and associated uplands that form part of the former Wales Coalfields. Most notably the North-West Wales and North-East Wales mineral resource/coal mining maps cover a large proportion of the Conwy Valley. Although mining activity in the area has ceased, many disused mines still exist today and may affect hydraulic pathways below and on the surface.

As a result of national, regional and local policy changes and new evidence it is proposed to amend the existing LDP objective.

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft (Edition 10)

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective (SO11): Contribute to the implementation of the circular economy, manage waste with minimal environmental impacts and ensure the sustainable use of natural resources, including for energy generation and providing an adequate supply of minerals and materials for construction.

Related Objectives: SO1, 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, 15 & 16

Environmental and Cultural

Landscapes: All the landscapes in Conwy are valued for their intrinsic contribution to a sense of place, and local authorities should protect and enhance their special characteristics in the RLDP, whilst paying due regard to the social, economic, environmental and cultural benefits they provide, and to their role in creating valued places. Considering landscape at the outset of formulating strategies and polices in development plans and when proposing development is key to sustaining and enhancing their special qualities, and delivering the maximum well-being benefits for present and future generations as well as helping to deliver an effective and integrated approach to natural resource management over the long term. Collaboration with adjacent planning authorities, Natural Resources Wales (NRW) and the third sector will be necessary to draw on a wide range of expertise and evidence in drawing up the RLDP.

Snowdonia National Park. Designated as a National Park in 1951, Snowdonia National Park is the largest and the first to be designated in Wales. It includes an area of 213,200 hectares. The Snowdonia National Park covers parts of Gwynedd and parts of the CCBC area, including shared settlements. The RLDP should provide an appropriate level of protection.

Conwy designates 6 Special Landscape Areas at the local level. The RLDP should provide an appropriate level of protection and enhancement opportunities for landscapes designated at the local level.

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft (Edition 10)

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 12 (SO12): Conserve and enhance Conwy's high quality natural and cultural heritage assets.

Related Objectives: All objectives

Coastal Areas: The interface between land and sea gives rise to the unique characteristics associated with coastal areas. As well as opportunities, these characteristics present their own set of challenges which demand particular considerations and responses. Identifying and understanding these unique characteristics and their interaction with each other, will help to ensure planning approaches in coastal places are environmentally and economically sustainable, socially equitable and cohesive and recognise the threat posed by climate change. The Welsh National Marine Plan is being developed to optimise opportunities for the sustainable development of Wales's seas. Whilst not adopted the RLDP will need to consider the policy matters relevant to Conwy

Landward development pressures may include major developments on the coast, port and harbour works, leisure and recreational facilities, renewable energy generation or coastal defences. Seaward development pressures may include waste disposal, sea fishing, increased leisure sailing, dredging of navigable channels, water sports and bathing, marine aggregates extraction or tidal and wave power generation. The impacts associated with such activities can be widespread and may relate to inappropriate land use, pressure for services and facilities, and impacts on existing businesses and employment as well as on the natural and historic character of the coastline.

Climate change also adds to the challenges faced in coastal places resulting in losses of protected habitat or the loss of features which protect against inundation, such as sand dunes, as well as consequential effects on recreational beaches, people and property. A 'Development Potential in the East of the County Borough Study' is underway to determine opportunities to assist regeneration.

The Conwy coastline houses 85% of the population and all higher order urban areas fall along the A55 coastal corridor. The area has a high level of development pressure and areas such as Pensarn, Towyn and Kinmel Bay are in need of regeneration, where adversely flood risk is a key challenge. Tourism is a key sector for a high number of these communities, although in majority of locations this is seasonal. The Conwy Economic Growth Strategy also promotes a new Tidal Lagoon. The RLDP will need to clearly establish what the coast means for Conwy and develop, or apply, specific policies, which reflect the characteristics of the coastline. In doing so the RLDP should acknowledge the interrelationships between the physical, biological and land use characteristics of their coastal areas and the impacts of climate change.

The current LDP does include a policy covering Coastal Areas, therefore this is a newly proposed objective.

Planning Policy Wales

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 13 (SO13): Support growth, regeneration and development opportunities in Coastal Areas, whilst at the same time being aware and responsive to the challenges resulting from natural pressures.

Related Objectives: All objectives

Historic Environment: Historic assets play an important role for tourism, investment and communities and need protecting and enhancing through the RLDP. The historic environment comprises all the surviving physical elements of past human activity and illustrates how past generations have shaped the world around us. It is central to Conwy's culture and its character, whilst contributing to our sense of place and identity. It enhances our quality of life, adds to regional and local distinctiveness and is an important economic and social asset.

Conwy Castle is designated as a World Heritage Site. UNESCO considers Conwy Castle to be "one of the finest examples of late 13th century and early 14th century military architecture in Europe",

The CCBC area hosts 162 Scheduled Monuments, 1735 Listed Buildings of which 29 are listed at Grade I, 1610 at Grade 2 and 96 at Grade 2*, and 24 Conservation Areas. The RLDP must support the protection and enhancement of all nationally designated heritage assets, including their setting. The identified heritage assets benefit from statutory protection which must be taken account of within policies, proposals and guidance within the RLDP.

The CCBC area hosts a range of designated heritage assets, each of which need to be appropriately protected from effects on their integrity and setting. Their contribution to the CCBC area and especially Conwy town (a world heritage town) should be preserved, protected and promoted to encourage tourism within the area.

Geological: The CCBC area hosts 12 SSSIs designated for reasons of geological importance. The RLDP must support the management of all nationally designated sites to maintain or improve their current condition.

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft (Edition 10)

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 12 (SO12): Conserve and enhance Conwy's high quality natural and cultural heritage assets.

Related Objectives: All objectives

Green Infrastructure and Biodiversity

Green Infrastructure: Green infrastructure is the network of natural and semi-natural features, green spaces, rivers and lakes that intersperse and connect places. Component elements of green infrastructure can function at different scales. At the landscape scale green infrastructure can comprise entire ecosystems such as wetlands, waterways and mountain ranges. At a local scale, it might comprise parks, fields, public rights of way, allotments, cemeteries and gardens. At smaller scales, individual urban interventions such as street trees, hedgerows, roadside verges, and green roofs can all contribute to green infrastructure networks.

The Environment (Wales) Act 2016, provides a strong driver for the delivery of multi-functional green infrastructure. Its provision can make a significant contribution to the sustainable management of natural resources, and in particular to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity and the resilience of ecosystems in terms of the diversity between and within ecosystems and the extent, condition and connectivity of ecosystems and their ability to deal with and recover from unexpected events. This means that the development of green infrastructure is an important way for local authorities to deliver their section 6 duty via the RLDP.

A Conwy Green Infrastructure Assessment is underway to inform the RLDP production and develop a robust approach to enhancing biodiversity, increasing ecological resilience and improving wellbeing outcomes, and will identify key strategic opportunities where the restoration, maintenance creation or connection of green features and functions would deliver the most significant benefits in Conwy.

Biodiversity: The RLDP will need to ensure that it follows a step-wise approach to protecting and enhancing biodiversity and building resilient ecological networks by ensuring that any adverse environmental effects are minimised and mitigated.

Conwy accommodates 3 Special Landscape Area (SPAs), 8 Special Area of Conservation (SAC) and a single Ramsar Site. There is a need to support the management of all internationally designated sites (including possible or proposed new European Sites) in pursuit of their defined conservation objectives.

Conwy accommodates 43 Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) and 6 National Nature Reserve (NNR). Any RLDP must support the management of all nationally designated sites in pursuit of their defined conservation objectives.

Conwy has designated over 40 Biodiversity Areas on land owned or managed by the Council and 11 Local Nature Reserves The RLDP should provide an appropriate level of protection and enhancement opportunities for biodiversity sites designated at the local level.

Any proposals for development within the CCBC area could adversely impact designated sites and biodiversity through a range of direct and indirect effects, potentially including loss of roosting, foraging and other habitats, physical or noise disturbance, abstraction of river water, discharge of effluent, contamination and air pollution. As such, all proposals and policies within the RLDP must take account of relevant ecological sensitivities. This includes the need to support the management of all designated sites in relation to their status and in pursuit of their defined conservation objectives. The RLDP must also provide an appropriate level of protection for protected species and non-designated ecological interests.

The Environment Wales Act 2016

Planning Policy Wales (Edition 9) and Draft (Edition 10)

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 14 (SO14): Protect and enhance biodiversity and build resilient ecological networks.

Related Objectives: SO1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 15 & 16

Water, Air, Soundscape and Light

Air and Soundscape: Clean air and an appropriate soundscape, contribute to a positive experience of place as well as being necessary for public health, amenity and well-being. They are indicators of local environmental quality and integral qualities of place which should be protected through preventative or proactive action through the planning system. The RLDP should ensure that it contains policies to prevent impact and maximise its contribution to achieving a healthier Wales by aiming to reduce average population exposure to air and noise pollution alongside action to tackle high pollution hotspots. In doing so, the agent of change principle will be a relevant consideration.

The latest available data indicates that air quality standards within the CCBC area are not at risk of exceeding European Union derived Air Quality Objectives and no detailed assessments or management plans are required at Council level for any pollutants. Continued monitoring of air quality within CCBC will be required, in particular the A55 dual carriageway which is the main trunk route between the North West of England and Holyhead ferry port, including the A55 Conwy tunnel and the A470 progressing inland to Snowdonia. Additional traffic on these roads arising from new development should be continually monitored.

The RLDP should also identify areas, such as areas of cultural or historic importance, to be given special consideration in terms of soundscape where this may be necessary to safeguard the vibrancy of places or provide tranquil, restorative environments within busy built-up areas. As well as this, it will be invaluable to identify synergies between the mapping of green infrastructure and the moderating effect the protection of, or provision of, green infrastructure may have in terms of maintaining good air quality and appropriate soundscapes, including the role of tranquil green spaces. Additionally, the RLDP should set out policies, proposals and guidance to tackle known areas of poor air quality and the likely impacts of new development on air quality, including from traffic. It should also seek to reduce local air pollution through setting out policies and proposals to promote sustainable and active travel modes

Light: There is a need to balance the provision of lighting to enhance safety and security to help in the prevention of crime and to allow activities like sport and recreation to take place with the need to protect the natural and historic environment including wildlife; retain dark skies where appropriate; prevent glare and respect the amenity of neighbouring land uses, and reduce the carbon emissions associated with lighting. The RLDP will also need to consider the Dark Sky Reserves in Snowdonia National Park.

Waterbodies In Conwy: The CCBC area is within the Western Wales River Basin District. This hosts 25 groundwater bodies, 60% of which were classified with good overall status in 2015 (both quantitative and chemically). Across Western Wales, historic mining activity poses a continued threat to water quality - vulnerable to pollution nitrate contamination. Waterbodies across the CCBC area vary in quality, ecological value and present condition. Management of water quality is essential for improving the long-term health of populations and the environment. There are 63 waterbodies and 9 lakes across the Conwy and Clwyd catchment. Of these, 16 rivers and 8 of the lakes are artificial or heavily modified.

The RLDP will need to set out policies, proposals and guidance to protect and enhance the water environment and water resources, including surface and groundwater quantity and quality. This should include measures to eliminate contamination sources which harm the water environment and to regulate pollution discharges from new developments into receiving watercourses.

The current LDP does not include a current objective covering these required issues, therefore it is newly proposed.

The Environment Wales Act 2016

Planning Policy Wales

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 15 (SO15): Reduce exposure to air and noise pollution, balance the provision of development and lighting to enhance safety and security, and protect and enhance the water environment and water resources, including surface and groundwater quantity and quality.

Related Objective: All objectives

Unlocking Development Potential through De-risking: Various constraints are apparent in Conwy that will impact on the ability of some communities to promote wellbeing and meet overall development needs. These include floodrisk, topography, natural and historic landscape and highways. Understanding the barriers to unlocking the potential of places, including the transformation or regeneration of an area or the development of a single site, is a key part of achieving sustainable places and must be considered in developing the RLDP.

Climate change is likely to increase the risk of flooding as a result of sea-level rises and more intense rainfall. Flooding as a hazard involves the consideration of the potential consequences of flooding, as well as the likelihood of an event occurring. The RLDP should adopt a precautionary approach of positive avoidance of development in areas of flooding from the sea or from rivers.

There are large areas of the County Borough at risk from flooding, in particular, Llandudno and the settlements to the East of the County Borough. The Council are currently undertaking a review of the flood risk and defences to the East in anticipation of assisting regeneration and development to meet community's needs. This work will further inform the RLDP as it takes shape.

A de-risking approach, where the consideration of natural and human-made surface and subsurface hazards and environmental risks is factored in as an integral part of a better understanding of the characteristics of places, should be actively facilitated in developing the RLDP. This means that the role of planning authorities is to facilitate awareness of environmental hazards and risks and to identify opportunities for creative placemaking

The Environment Wales Act 2016

Planning Policy Wales

Technical Advice Notes

Topic Papers

Background Papers

Strategic Objective 16 (SO16): Unlock growth, regeneration and development potential in Conwy by taking a de-risking approach.

Related Objectives: SO1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 & 14

5.3 Having considered the key issues and problems, 16 Objectives are proposed as detailed below in Table 3

Table 3: Proposed Objectives

Placemaking

Strategic Objective 1 (SO1) Creating Sustainable Places in Conwy: Contribute to the creation of sustainable places, social inclusion and improved wellbeing overall in Conwy through the delivery of inclusive placemaking and regeneration that ensures future growth levels and development takes place in sustainable and accessible locations, seeks to promote good design and healthier places, protects Welsh language and is supported by the necessary social, environmental, cultural and economic infrastructure to create great places.

Social

Strategic Objective 2 (SO2) Housing: Promote a holistic and co-located employment and housing growth strategy by delivering new homes, including affordable homes and gypsy and traveller accommodation needs in sustainable and accessible locations, and ensuring that the right range of housing types, sizes and tenure are brought forward alongside the necessary community infrastructure.

Strategic Objective 3 (SO3) Retailing and Commercial Centres: Achieve vibrant, attractive and viable town and commercial centres in Conwy by redefining their role and by encouraging a diversity of activities and uses.

Strategic Objective 4 (SO4) Community Facilities: Contribute to a sense of place and overall health, wellbeing and amenity of local communities by ensuring that the existing and future population groups have access to a sustainable mix of community facilities.

Strategic Objective 5 (SO5) Recreational Spaces: Encourage physical and mental wellbeing through the provision and protection of high quality, accessible green spaces and recreation space networks.

Strategic Objective 6 (SO6) Transport: Deliver sustainable development and seek to tackle the causes of climate change by extending the choice of sustainable transport to enable Conwy's communities to access jobs and key services through the promotion of shorter and more active and efficient walking, cycling and public transport use and by influencing the location, scale, density, mix of uses and design of new development,

Economy

Strategic Objective 7 (SO7) Economic Development: Support long-term economic prosperity, diversification and regeneration, by taking advantage of Conwy's strategic position within the wider regional growth deal and by promoting a holistic and co-located employment and housing growth strategy, which will facilitate new jobs growth of the right type in sustainable and accessible locations, support business networks and clusters, increase skills in high value employment and provide the necessary new infrastructure, which overall will enable new businesses to locate in Conwy and existing business to grow.

Strategic Objective 8 (S08) Tourism: Encourage and support the provision of sustainable tourism where it contributes to economic prosperity and development, conservation, rural diversification, regeneration and social inclusion, while recognising the needs of visitors, businesses, local communities and the need to protect historic and natural environments.

Strategic Objective 9 (S09) Rural Economy: Promote and support sustainable and vibrant rural communities by establishing new enterprise, expanding existing business and by adopting a constructive approach to agriculture and changing farming practices.

Strategic Objective 10 (S010) Energy and Climate Change: Secure an appropriate mix of energy provision, including the promotion of a Tidal Lagoon, which maximises benefits to Conwy's economy and communities whilst minimising potential environmental and social impacts.

Strategic Objective 11 (SO11) Minerals and Waste: Contribute to the implementation of the circular economy, manage waste with minimal environmental impacts and ensure the sustainable use of natural resources, including for energy generation and providing an adequate supply of minerals and materials for construction.

Environmental and Cultural

Strategic Objective 12 (SO12) Landscapes and Historic Environments: Conserve and enhance Conwy's high quality natural and cultural heritage assets.

Strategic Objective 13 (SO13) Coastal Areas: Support growth, regeneration and development opportunities in Coastal Areas, whilst at the same time being aware and responsive to the challenges resulting from natural pressures.

Strategic Objective 14 (SO14) Green Infrastructure and Biodiversity: Protect and enhance biodiversity and build resilient ecological networks.

Strategic Objective 15 (SO15) Water, Air, Soundscape and Light: Reduce exposure to air and noise pollution, balance the provision of development and lighting to enhance safety and security, and protect and enhance the water environment and water resources, including surface and groundwater quantity and quality.

Strategic Objective 16 (SO16) Unlocking Development Potential through De-risking: Unlock growth, regeneration and development potential in Conwy by taking a de-risking approach.

5.4 The LDP objectives also need to be consistent with each other. It is useful therefore to test the internal compatibility of the objectives using a matrix approach. This will help highlight the more important objectives and any tensions between objectives that cannot be resolved so that subsequent decisions on priorities are well based, and alternatives and mitigation can be considered. This work has been undertaken in the background papers and the SA Report.

View Comments (11) Question 4: Do you agree with the Objectives?

View Comments (7) Question 5: Are there any other objectives that should be considered?

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